Carbonate Petrography

Carbonate petrography is the study of limestones, dolomites and associated deposits under optical or electron microscopes greatly enhances field studies or core observations and can provide a frame of reference for geochemical studies.

25 strangest Geologic Formations on Earth

The strangest formations on Earth.

What causes Earthquake?

Of these various reasons, faulting related to plate movements is by far the most significant. In other words, most earthquakes are due to slip on faults.

The Geologic Column

As stated earlier, no one locality on Earth provides a complete record of our planet’s history, because stratigraphic columns can contain unconformities. But by correlating rocks from locality to locality at millions of places around the world, geologists have pieced together a composite stratigraphic column, called the geologic column, that represents the entirety of Earth history.

Folds and Foliations

Geometry of Folds Imagine a carpet lying flat on the floor. Push on one end of the carpet, and it will wrinkle or contort into a series of wavelike curves. Stresses developed during mountain building can similarly warp or bend bedding and foliation (or other planar features) in rock. The result a curve in the shape of a rock layer is called a fold.

Term used in Structural Geology


A flat surface; it has the property that a line joining any two points lies wholly on its surface. Two intersecting lines define a plane. 


The general term for the orientation of a plane or line in space, usually related to geographical coordinates and the horizontal. Both trend and inclination are components of attitude. 


The direction of a horizontal line specified by its bearing or azimuth. Bearing: the horizontal angle measured east or west from true north or south. 


The horizontal angle measured clockwise from true north. 


The trend of a horizontal line on an inclined plane. It is marked by the line of intersection with a horizontal plane. 

Structural bearing

The horizontal angle measured from the strike direction to the line of interest. 


The vertical angle, usually measured downward, from the horizontal to a sloping plane or line. 

True dip

The inclination of the steepest line on a plane; it is measured perpendicular to the strike direction.

Apparent dip

The inclination of an oblique line on a plane; it is always less than true dip.