Carbonate Petrography

Carbonate petrography is the study of limestones, dolomites and associated deposits under optical or electron microscopes greatly enhances field studies or core observations and can provide a frame of reference for geochemical studies.

25 strangest Geologic Formations on Earth

The strangest formations on Earth.

What causes Earthquake?

Of these various reasons, faulting related to plate movements is by far the most significant. In other words, most earthquakes are due to slip on faults.

The Geologic Column

As stated earlier, no one locality on Earth provides a complete record of our planet’s history, because stratigraphic columns can contain unconformities. But by correlating rocks from locality to locality at millions of places around the world, geologists have pieced together a composite stratigraphic column, called the geologic column, that represents the entirety of Earth history.

Folds and Foliations

Geometry of Folds Imagine a carpet lying flat on the floor. Push on one end of the carpet, and it will wrinkle or contort into a series of wavelike curves. Stresses developed during mountain building can similarly warp or bend bedding and foliation (or other planar features) in rock. The result a curve in the shape of a rock layer is called a fold.

How Do Extrusive and Intrusive Environments Differ?

How Do Extrusive and Intrusive Environments Differ? 

With a background on how melts form and freeze, we can now introduce key features of the two settings intrusive and extrusive in which igneous rocks form.

Extrusive Igneous Settings 

Different volcanoes extrude molten rock in different ways. Some volcanoes erupt streams of low-viscosity lava that flood down the flanks of the volcano and then cover broad swaths of the countryside. When this lava freezes, it forms a relatively thin lava flow. Such flows may cool in days to months. In contrast, some volcanoes erupt viscous masses of lava that pile into rubbly domes. And still others erupt explosively, sending clouds of volcanic ash and debris skyward, and/or avalanches of ash tumbling down the sides of the volcano.

Studying Rock

Studying Rock 

Outcrop Observations 

The study of rocks begins by examining a rock in an outcrop. If the outcrop is big enough, such an examination will reveal relationships between the rock you’re interested in and the rocks around it, and will allow you to detect layering. Geologists carefully record observations about an outcrop, then break off a hand specimen, a fist-sized piece, that they can examine more closely with a hand lens (magnifying glass). Observation with a hand lens enables geologists to identify sand-sized or larger grains, and may enable them to describe the texture of the rock.

Thin-Section Study 

Studying rocks in thin section.

The Basis of Rock Classification

The Basis of Rock Classification 

Examples of three major rock groups.
Beginning in the 18th century, geologists struggled to develop a sensible way to classify rocks, for they realized, as did miners from centuries past, that not all rocks are the same. Classification schemes help us organize information and remember significant details about materials or objects, and they help us recognize similarities and differences among them. By the end of the 18th century, most geologists had accepted the genetic scheme for classifying rocks that we continue to use today. This scheme focuses on the origin (genesis) of rocks. Using this approach, geologists recognize three basic groups: (1) igneous rocks, which form by the freezing (solidification) of molten rock (figure above a); (2) sedimentary rocks, which form either by the cementing together of fragments (grains) broken off preexisting rocks or by the precipitation of mineral crystals out of water solutions at or near the Earth’s surface (figure above b); and (3) metamorphic rocks, which form when pre-existing rocks change character in response to a change in pressure and temperature conditions (figure above c). Metamorphic change occurs in the solid state, which means that it does not require melting. In the context of modern plate tectonics theory, different rock types form in different geologic settings (figure below).