Carbonate Petrography

Carbonate petrography is the study of limestones, dolomites and associated deposits under optical or electron microscopes greatly enhances field studies or core observations and can provide a frame of reference for geochemical studies.

25 strangest Geologic Formations on Earth

The strangest formations on Earth.

What causes Earthquake?

Of these various reasons, faulting related to plate movements is by far the most significant. In other words, most earthquakes are due to slip on faults.

The Geologic Column

As stated earlier, no one locality on Earth provides a complete record of our planet’s history, because stratigraphic columns can contain unconformities. But by correlating rocks from locality to locality at millions of places around the world, geologists have pieced together a composite stratigraphic column, called the geologic column, that represents the entirety of Earth history.

Folds and Foliations

Geometry of Folds Imagine a carpet lying flat on the floor. Push on one end of the carpet, and it will wrinkle or contort into a series of wavelike curves. Stresses developed during mountain building can similarly warp or bend bedding and foliation (or other planar features) in rock. The result a curve in the shape of a rock layer is called a fold.

World Map: Political and Physical

World Map

Political Map of the world

The guide above and below is a political guide of the world fixated on Europe and Africa. It demonstrates the area of the greater part of the world's nations and incorporates their names where space permits. 
Speaking to a round earth on a level guide obliges some bending of the geographic elements regardless of how the guide is finished. We have utilized a Mercator projection for this guide in light of the fact that it is the projection most normally utilized as a part of schools. On this guide, geographic limits that pattern north-south show up as vertical lines, geographic limits that pattern east-west show up as flat lines. This sort of projection causes at least nation shape bending close to the equator, a little measure of twisting at mid-scopes, however amazing contortion close to the posts. Thus, the guide does not reach out toward the north and south shafts.

Physical map of the world

The guide on the base of this page is a territory alleviation picture of the world. It incorporates the world's countries names with major cities of the world seas and the names of major narrows, bays and oceans . Most reduced heights are demonstrated as a dim green shading with a slope from green to dim cocoa to dim as rise increments. This permits the significant mountain extents and marshes to be plainly obvious. 
This guide is likewise a Mercator projection fixated on Europe and Africa. A size of miles is not demonstrated on these maps in light of the fact that the scale changes with separation north and south of the equator. Scale is exceedingly misrepresented as separation from the equator increments.

Countries labelled on this map

We were able to show 132 world countries on the map above. The United States Department of State
recognizes 195 independent countries. We were not able to show every one of these countries on the
political map above because many of them were too small.

Central African Republic
Costa Rica
Cote d' Ivoire
Democratic Republic of the Congo
French Guiana
New Zealand
North Korea
Papua New Guinea
Republic of the Congo
Saudi Arabia
Sierra Leone
Solomon Islands
South Africa
South Korea
Sri Lanka
Svalbard (Norway)
United Kingdom
United States
Western Sahara

Spotted Lake, British Columbia, Canada

Spotted Lake is a saline endorheic salt lake found northwest of Osoyoos in the eastern Similkameen Valley of British Columbia, Canada, got to by means of Highway 3. Initially known not First Nations of the Okanagan Valley as Kliluk, Spotted Lake was for quite a long time and stays respected as a sacrosanct site thought to give helpful waters. Amid World War I, the minerals of Spotted Lake were utilized as a part of assembling ammo. 

Later, the region went under the control of the Ernest Smith Family for a term of around 40 years. In 1979, Smith endeavored to make enthusiasm for a spa at the lake. The First Nations reacted with a push to purchase the lake, then in October 2001, struck an arrangement by buying 22 hectares of area for a sum of $720,000, and contributed around 20% of the expense. The Indian Affairs Department paid the rest of. Spotted Lake is luxuriously thought with different minerals. It contains thick stores of magnesium sulfate, calcium and sodium sulfates. It likewise contains high groupings of eight different minerals and lower measures of silver and titanium. 

The water's majority in the lake dissipates over the late spring, uncovering beautiful mineral stores. Expansive "spots" on the lake seem and are shaded by mineral organization and regular measure of precipitation. Magnesium sulfate, which solidifies in the mid year, is a noteworthy supporter to spot shading. In the mid year, remaining minerals in the lake solidify to shape normal "walkways" around and between the spots.

Ground actually open up and move!

The biggest iceberg calvings on camera

The Fitness of Geology

"I do not know of any fields in which professionals enjoy their work more than geologists do. Perhaps this is due to the uniqueness of work in the geological sciences. What other science requires the use of both the mind and body?" ——John Wakabayashi
Science is a labor of the mind and will, but some of its specialties call upon the muscles as well. Perhaps the foremost of those is geology. I believe geologists are the fittest of scientists and, aside from one or two specific hazards, the most likely to have long and productive lives.
Meeting Chair John Wakabayashi talks about the geology along Panoche Road

Physical Fitness

The geologist's fieldwork is the kind of freeform, nonrepetitive workout that gyms can't offer:
  • For legs and feet there's lots of walking, kneeling, crouching and standing on tiptoe at outcrops.
  • For core strength and cardiovascular fitness there's carrying a pack while scrambling over boulders, slogging down streambeds and clambering around quarries. There's reaching high overhead for that elusive mineral pocket and lying down at full length to get the closest view of an exposure.
  • For the upper body there's turning and lifting rocks, as well as the free-weight exercise known as using a rock hammer. There's drilling core, holding maps in the breeze, pushing aside brush.
  • Lastly, geologists talk using their hands and arms vigorously. This is especially true of structural geologists. There's a joke that the way to shut geologists up is to tie their arms down.
Carrying specimens back to the vehicle combines all of these. And every minute of the day is different.
A day in the field leaves one pleasantly tired and ready for a mild muscle relaxant.

Mental Fitness

At every step geologists are also using their eyes and minds. Geology seems particularly to call upon multiple intelligences as well as the method of multiple working hypotheses.
Fieldwork is motion with a point—it is constant observation. They say that the best geologist is the one who has seen the most rocks. Seeing rocks is an intense mental workout in four dimensions, three in space and one in time. The minerals, textures, fabric, colors and fossils all must be noted and assessed. The regional setting and neighboring rocks bear on the immediate scene as well.
When rocks are brought back to the laboratory, all the field evidence must be kept in mind there too—and when the field site is revisited, the lab results may change what to look at. Indeed, they may change what is being seen.
The ability to plan complex undertakings and change plans on the fly is an essential geologic skill. Whether it's equipment breakdowns, injury or illness in the team, bad weather, the threat of wild animals, or salvaging a failed expedition, mental fitness is what prevails. The exemplar in this respect is one-armed geologist John Wesley Powell, who led the first expedition down the Grand Canyon in 1869 without a map and emerged a hero.
Mental exercise is known to help prevent or forestall dementias related to age, such as Alzheimer's disease. Playing chess works, but the geologist's open-ended kind of mental exercise is better suited to our native brain. Geologists who teach or give presentations—that is, most of them—get the same stimulation year round. And in a field that many can excel in, but none can master, the challenge of geology never fades.

Social Fitness

The day is long gone when geology was a solo occupation. Well-run teams do better science than individuals. The best geologist must not only see the most rocks, but must work well with the most people. The best geologist is effective in email as well as in the field: a glance at the authorship of journal articles shows that collaborators may be anywhere in the world.
A geologist may deal with suspicious landowners to gain access to their property, not to mention strangers in the woods and petty officials in foreign countries. All of these possibilities call for good social skills. And after every interaction, geologists have another story to tell each other.

Hazards of the Field

Physical, mental and social fitness go far in the field, but some special hazards wait there too. Bears and wolves and other large animals make firearms a necessity in many areas. Falls, cuts and sprains require skill with first aid. There are hazardous plants to watch out for, too. Although technology makes hunger, thirst and getting lost less likely than in the old days, a passing familiarity with wilderness survival is good to have.
Then there's the sun. Long hours in the sun, especially at high altitude, make skin cancer an occupational hazard for geologists.
Finally, it's essential to be a good driver, and it's helpful to be handy with tools. Every geologist has at least one story about a car, a boat or a plane


Fossils in rocks

Fossils in rocks are preserved which are studied by the scientists. The fossils are the key to past, by studying fossils provide us the evidence for what happened in the Earth history and when it happened. Fossils can tell us series of things like

  • Correlating same age rock units.
  • The time a rock layered deposited.
  • What were the conditions at time of deposition.
  • What were the environment in which the rock was formed.
  • What happened in the Earth's history.
The word fossil makes numerous individuals consider dinosaurs. Dinosaurs are currently included in books, motion pictures, and TV projects, and the bones of some expansive dinosaurs are in plain view in numerous historical centers. These reptiles were predominant creatures on Earth for well more than 100 million years from the Late Triassic through the Late Cretaceous. Numerous dinosaurs were entirely little, however by the center of the Mesozoic Period, a few species weighed as much as 80 tons. By around 65 million years prior all dinosaurs were wiped out. The purposes behind and the rate of their termination are a matter of exceptional level headed discussion among researchers.

Regardless of the greater part of the enthusiasm for dinosaurs, they frame just a little portion of the a large number of animal groups that live and have lived on Earth. The colossal greater part of the fossil record is commanded by fossils of creatures with shells and minute stays of plants and creatures, and these remaining parts are broad in sedimentary rocks. It is these fossils that are examined by most scientists.

In the late eighteenth and mid nineteenth hundreds of years, the English geologist and designer William Smith and the French scientists Georges Cuvier and Alexandre Brongniart found that stones of the same age may contain the same fossils notwithstanding when the stones are isolated by long separations. They distributed the first geologic maps of vast zones on which shakes containing comparative fossils were indicated. Via cautious perception of the stones and their fossils, these men and different geologists had the capacity perceive rocks of the same age on inverse sides of the English Channel.

William Smith had the capacity apply his insight into fossils in an exceptionally down to earth way. He was a designer building channels in England, which has loads of vegetation and few surface exposures of rock. He expected to comprehend what rocks he could hope to discover on the slopes through which he needed to fabricate a channel. Frequently he could tell what sort of rock was prone to be underneath the surface by inspecting the fossils that had disintegrated from the stones of the slope or by burrowing a little opening to discover fossils. Realizing what rocks to anticipate that permitted Smith will gauge costs and figure out what devices were required for the employment.

Smith and others realized that the progression of life structures saved as fossils is valuable for seeing how and when the stones shaped. Just later did researchers build up a hypothesis to clarify that progression.

This clearly shows how the rocks can be correlated and what time deposited by examining the fossils of the age at which it were deposited. The age of the fossil is regarded as the age of the rock unit in which it is found. Moreover by looking at the fossils of marine and land animals clearly shows the deposition of rock unit under conditions of terrestial and marine.