Carbonate Petrography

Carbonate petrography is the study of limestones, dolomites and associated deposits under optical or electron microscopes greatly enhances field studies or core observations and can provide a frame of reference for geochemical studies.

25 strangest Geologic Formations on Earth

The strangest formations on Earth.

What causes Earthquake?

Of these various reasons, faulting related to plate movements is by far the most significant. In other words, most earthquakes are due to slip on faults.

The Geologic Column

As stated earlier, no one locality on Earth provides a complete record of our planet’s history, because stratigraphic columns can contain unconformities. But by correlating rocks from locality to locality at millions of places around the world, geologists have pieced together a composite stratigraphic column, called the geologic column, that represents the entirety of Earth history.

Folds and Foliations

Geometry of Folds Imagine a carpet lying flat on the floor. Push on one end of the carpet, and it will wrinkle or contort into a series of wavelike curves. Stresses developed during mountain building can similarly warp or bend bedding and foliation (or other planar features) in rock. The result a curve in the shape of a rock layer is called a fold.

We Are All Made of Stardust

We Are All Made of Stardust 

Where Do Elements Come From? 

Element factories in space.
Nebulae from which the first-generation stars formed consisted entirely of the lightest atoms, because only these atoms were generated by Big Bang nucleosynthesis. In contrast, the Universe of today contains 92 naturally occurring elements. Where did the other 87 elements come from? In other words, how did elements with larger atomic numbers (such as carbon, sulphur, silicon, iron, gold, and uranium), which are common on Earth, form? Physicists have shown that these elements form during the life cycle of stars, by the process of stellar nucleosynthesis. Because of stellar nucleosynthesis, we can consider stars to be “element factories,” constantly fashioning larger atoms out of smaller atoms. 
What happens to the atoms formed in stars? Some escape into space during the star’s lifetime, simply by moving fast enough to overcome the star’s gravitational pull. The stream of atoms emitted from a star during its lifetime is a stellar wind (figure above a). Some escape only when a star dies. A small or medium star (like our Sun) releases a large shell of gas as it dies, ballooning into a “red giant” during the process, whereas a large star blasts matter into space during a supernova explosion (figure above b). Most very heavy atoms (those with atomic numbers greater than that of iron) require even more violent circumstances to form than generally occurs within a star. In fact, most very heavy atoms form during a supernova explosion. Once ejected into space, atoms from stars and supernova explosions form new nebulae or mix back into existing nebulae.

Universe formation

Universe formation

We stand on a planet, in orbit around a star, speeding through space on the arm of a galaxy. Beyond our galaxy lie hundreds of billions of other galaxies. Where did all this “stuff” the matter of the Universe come from, and when did it first form? For most of human history, a scientific solution to these questions seemed intractable. But in the 1920s, unexpected observations about the nature of light from distant galaxies set astronomers on a path of discovery that ultimately led to a model of Universe formation known as the Big Bang theory. To explain these observations, we must first introduce an important phenomenon called the Doppler effect. We then show how this understanding leads to the recognition that the Universe is expanding, and finally, to the conclusion that this expansion began during the Big Bang, 13.7 billion years ago.

An Image of Our Universe

An Image of Our Universe

What Is the Structure of the Universe? 

Contrasting views of the universe drawn by artist hundreds of years ago.
Think about the mysterious spectacle of a clear night sky. What objects are up there? How big are they? How far away are they? How do they move? How are they arranged? In addressing such questions, ancient philosophers first distinguished between stars (points of light whose locations relative to each other are fixed) and planets (tiny spots of light that move relative to the backdrop of stars). Over the centuries, two schools of thought developed concerning how to explain the configuration of stars and planets, and their relationships to the Earth, Sun, and Moon. The first school advocated a geocentric model (figure above a), in which the Earth sat without moving at the centre of the Universe, while the Moon and the planets whirled around it within a revolving globe of stars. The second school advocated a heliocentric model (figure above b), in which the Sun lay at the centre of the Universe, with the Earth and other planets orbiting around it.