Carbonate Petrography

Carbonate petrography is the study of limestones, dolomites and associated deposits under optical or electron microscopes greatly enhances field studies or core observations and can provide a frame of reference for geochemical studies.

25 strangest Geologic Formations on Earth

The strangest formations on Earth.

What causes Earthquake?

Of these various reasons, faulting related to plate movements is by far the most significant. In other words, most earthquakes are due to slip on faults.

The Geologic Column

As stated earlier, no one locality on Earth provides a complete record of our planet’s history, because stratigraphic columns can contain unconformities. But by correlating rocks from locality to locality at millions of places around the world, geologists have pieced together a composite stratigraphic column, called the geologic column, that represents the entirety of Earth history.

Folds and Foliations

Geometry of Folds Imagine a carpet lying flat on the floor. Push on one end of the carpet, and it will wrinkle or contort into a series of wavelike curves. Stresses developed during mountain building can similarly warp or bend bedding and foliation (or other planar features) in rock. The result a curve in the shape of a rock layer is called a fold.

What Are Earth Layers Made Of?

What Are Earth Layers Made Of? 

A modern view of Earth‘s interior layers.
As a result of studies during the past century, geologists have a pretty clear sense of what the layers inside the Earth are made of. Let’s now look at the properties of individual layers in more detail (figure above a, b).

The Crust 

When you stand on the surface of the Earth, you are standing on top of its outermost layer, the crust. The crust is our home and the source of all our resources. How thick is this all important layer? Or, in other words, what is the depth to the crust-mantle boundary? An answer came from the studies of Andrija Mohorovicˇic´, a researcher working in Zagreb, Croatia. In 1909, he discovered that the velocity of earthquake waves suddenly increased at a depth of tens of kilometres beneath the Earth’s surface, and he suggested that this increase was caused by an abrupt change in the properties of rock. Later studies showed that this change can be found most everywhere around our planet, though it occurs at different depths in different locations. Specifically, it’s deeper beneath continents than beneath oceans. Geologists now consider the change to define the base of the crust, and they refer to it as the Moho in Mohorovicˇic´’s honour. The relatively shallow depth of the Moho (7 to 70 km, depending on location) as compared to the radius of the Earth (6,371 km) emphasizes that the crust is very thin indeed. In fact, the crust is only about 0.1% to 1.0% of the Earth’s radius, so if the Earth were the size of a balloon, the crust would be about the thickness of the balloon’s skin.

Introducing the Earth’s Interior

Introducing the Earth’s Interior 

What Is the Earth Made Of? 

The proportions of major elements making up the mass of the whole Earth.
At this point, we leave our fantasy space voyage and turn our attention inward to the materials that make up the solid Earth, because we need to be aware of these before we can discuss the architecture of the Earth’s interior. Let’s begin by reiterating that the Earth consists mostly of elements produced by fusion reactions in stars and by supernova explosions. Only four elements (iron, oxygen, silicon, and magnesium) make up 91.2% of the Earth’s mass; the remaining 8.8% consists of the other 88 elements (figure above). The elements of the Earth comprise a great variety of materials. 
  • Organic chemicals. Carbon-containing compounds that either occur in living organisms or have characteristics that resemble compounds in living organisms are called organic chemicals. 
  • Minerals. A solid, natural substance in which atoms are arranged in an orderly pattern is a mineral. A single coherent sample of a mineral that grew to its present shape is a crystal, whereas an irregularly shaped sample, or a fragment derived from a once-larger crystal or cluster of crystals, is a grain. 
  • Glasses. A solid in which atoms are not arranged in an orderly pattern is called glass. 
  • Rocks. Aggregates of mineral crystals or grains, or masses of natural glass, are called rocks. Geologists recognize three main groups of rocks. (1) Igneous rocks develop when hot molten (liquid) rock cools and freezes solid. (2) Sedimentary rocks form from grains that break off pre-existing rock and become cemented together, or from minerals that precipitate out of a water solution. (3) Metamorphic rocks form when pre-existing rocks change in response to heat and pressure. 
  • Sediment. An accumulation of loose mineral grains (grains that have not stuck together) is called sediment. 
  • Metals. A solid composed of metal atoms (such as iron, aluminium, copper, and tin) is called a metal. An alloy is a mixture containing more than one type of metal atom. 
  • Melts. A melt forms when solid materials become hot and transform into liquid. Molten rock is a type of melt geologists distinguish between magma, which is molten rock beneath the Earth’s surface, and lava, molten rock that has flowed out onto the Earth’s surface. 
  • Volatiles. Materials that easily transform into gas at the relatively low temperatures found at the Earth’s surface are called volatiles.