Carbonate Petrography

Carbonate petrography is the study of limestones, dolomites and associated deposits under optical or electron microscopes greatly enhances field studies or core observations and can provide a frame of reference for geochemical studies.

25 strangest Geologic Formations on Earth

The strangest formations on Earth.

What causes Earthquake?

Of these various reasons, faulting related to plate movements is by far the most significant. In other words, most earthquakes are due to slip on faults.

The Geologic Column

As stated earlier, no one locality on Earth provides a complete record of our planet’s history, because stratigraphic columns can contain unconformities. But by correlating rocks from locality to locality at millions of places around the world, geologists have pieced together a composite stratigraphic column, called the geologic column, that represents the entirety of Earth history.

Folds and Foliations

Geometry of Folds Imagine a carpet lying flat on the floor. Push on one end of the carpet, and it will wrinkle or contort into a series of wavelike curves. Stresses developed during mountain building can similarly warp or bend bedding and foliation (or other planar features) in rock. The result a curve in the shape of a rock layer is called a fold.

Oil and Gas

Oil and Gas

What Are Oil and Gas? 

For reasons of economics and convenience, industrialized societies today rely primarily on oil (petroleum) and natural gas for their energy needs. Oil and natural gas, both fossil fuels, consist of hydrocarbons, chain-like or ring-like molecules made of carbon and hydrogen atoms. Chemists consider hydrocarbons to be a type of organic chemical.
Some hydrocarbons are gaseous and invisible, some resemble a watery liquid, some appear syrupy, and some are solid. The viscosity (ability to flow) and the volatility (ability to evaporate) of a hydrocarbon product depend on the size of its molecules. Hydrocarbon products composed of short chains of molecules tend to be less viscous (meaning they can flow more easily) and more volatile (meaning they evaporate more easily) than products composed of long chains, because the long chains tend to tangle up with each other. Thus, short-chain molecules occur in gaseous form (natural gas) at room temperature, moderate-length-chain molecules occur in liquid form (gasoline and oil), and long-chain molecules occur in solid form (tar).

The Geologic Column

The Geologic Column

Global correlation of strata led to the development of the geologic column.
As stated earlier, no one locality on Earth provides a complete record of our planet’s history, because stratigraphic columns can contain unconformities. But by correlating rocks from locality to locality at millions of places around the world, geologists have pieced together a composite stratigraphic column, called the geologic column, that represents the entirety of Earth history (figure above a, b). The column is divided into segments, each of which represents a specific interval of time. The largest subdivisions break Earth history into the Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic, and Phanerozoic Eons. (The first three together constitute the Precambrian.) The suffix zoic means life, so Phanerozoic means visible life, and Proterozoic means first life. (It wasn’t until after the eons had been named that geologists determined that the earliest life, cells of Bacteria and Archaea, appeared in the Archean Eon.) The Phanerozoic Eon is subdivided into eras. In order from oldest to youngest, they are the Paleozoic (ancient life), Mesozoic (middle life), and Cenozoic (recent life) Eras. We further divide each era into periods and each period into epochs.