Carbonate Petrography

Carbonate petrography is the study of limestones, dolomites and associated deposits under optical or electron microscopes greatly enhances field studies or core observations and can provide a frame of reference for geochemical studies.

25 strangest Geologic Formations on Earth

The strangest formations on Earth.

What causes Earthquake?

Of these various reasons, faulting related to plate movements is by far the most significant. In other words, most earthquakes are due to slip on faults.

The Geologic Column

As stated earlier, no one locality on Earth provides a complete record of our planet’s history, because stratigraphic columns can contain unconformities. But by correlating rocks from locality to locality at millions of places around the world, geologists have pieced together a composite stratigraphic column, called the geologic column, that represents the entirety of Earth history.

Folds and Foliations

Geometry of Folds Imagine a carpet lying flat on the floor. Push on one end of the carpet, and it will wrinkle or contort into a series of wavelike curves. Stresses developed during mountain building can similarly warp or bend bedding and foliation (or other planar features) in rock. The result a curve in the shape of a rock layer is called a fold.

Deposition Associated with Glaciation

Deposition Associated with Glaciation 

The Glacial Conveyor 

The glacial conveyor and the formation of lateral and medial moraines on glaciers.
Glaciers can carry sediment of any size and, like a conveyor belt, transport it in the direction of flow (that is, toward the toe;  figure above a). The sediment load either falls onto the surface of the glacier from bordering cliffs or gets plucked and lifted from the substrate and incorporated into the moving ice. Geologists refer to a pile of debris carried by or left by glaciers as a moraine. Sediment dropped on the glacier’s surface moves with the ice and becomes a stripe of debris. Stripes formed along the side edges of the glacier are lateral moraines. When a glacier melts, lateral moraines lie stranded along the side of the glacially carved valley, like bathtub rings. Where two valley glaciers merge, the debris constituting two lateral moraines merges to become a medial moraine, running as a stripe down the interior of the composite glacier (figure above b). Trunk glaciers created by the merging of many tributary glaciers contain several medial moraines. Sediment transported to a glacier’s toe by the glacial conveyor accumulates in a pile at the toe and builds up to form an end moraine.