Carbonate Petrography

Carbonate petrography is the study of limestones, dolomites and associated deposits under optical or electron microscopes greatly enhances field studies or core observations and can provide a frame of reference for geochemical studies.

25 strangest Geologic Formations on Earth

The strangest formations on Earth.

What causes Earthquake?

Of these various reasons, faulting related to plate movements is by far the most significant. In other words, most earthquakes are due to slip on faults.

The Geologic Column

As stated earlier, no one locality on Earth provides a complete record of our planet’s history, because stratigraphic columns can contain unconformities. But by correlating rocks from locality to locality at millions of places around the world, geologists have pieced together a composite stratigraphic column, called the geologic column, that represents the entirety of Earth history.

Folds and Foliations

Geometry of Folds Imagine a carpet lying flat on the floor. Push on one end of the carpet, and it will wrinkle or contort into a series of wavelike curves. Stresses developed during mountain building can similarly warp or bend bedding and foliation (or other planar features) in rock. The result a curve in the shape of a rock layer is called a fold.

The Pleistocene Ice Age

The Pleistocene Ice Age 

The Pleistocene Glaciers 

Today, most of the land surface in New York City lies hidden beneath concrete and steel, but in Central Park it’s still possible to see land in a seminatural state. If you stroll through the park, you’ll find that the top surfaces of outcrops are smooth and polished, and in places have been grooved and scratched. Here and there, glacial erratics rest on the bedrock. You are seeing evidence that an ice sheet once scraped along this now-urban ground. Geologists estimate that the ice sheet that overrode the New York City area may have been 250 m thick, enough to bury a 75-story building. 
The fact that glaciated landscapes still decorate the surface of the Earth means that the last ice age occurred fairly recently during Earth’s history. Otherwise, the landscape features would have been either eroded away or buried. The ice age responsible for the glaciated landscapes of North America, Europe, and Asia happened mostly during the Pleistocene Epoch, which began about 2.6 Ma, so as we’ve noted earlier, it is commonly known as the Pleistocene Ice Age. 

Pleistocene ice sheets of the northern hemisphere.