Carbonate Petrography

Carbonate petrography is the study of limestones, dolomites and associated deposits under optical or electron microscopes greatly enhances field studies or core observations and can provide a frame of reference for geochemical studies.

25 strangest Geologic Formations on Earth

The strangest formations on Earth.

What causes Earthquake?

Of these various reasons, faulting related to plate movements is by far the most significant. In other words, most earthquakes are due to slip on faults.

The Geologic Column

As stated earlier, no one locality on Earth provides a complete record of our planet’s history, because stratigraphic columns can contain unconformities. But by correlating rocks from locality to locality at millions of places around the world, geologists have pieced together a composite stratigraphic column, called the geologic column, that represents the entirety of Earth history.

Folds and Foliations

Geometry of Folds Imagine a carpet lying flat on the floor. Push on one end of the carpet, and it will wrinkle or contort into a series of wavelike curves. Stresses developed during mountain building can similarly warp or bend bedding and foliation (or other planar features) in rock. The result a curve in the shape of a rock layer is called a fold.

Aventurine Gemstone

What is Aventurine?

Aventurine is a form of quartz, characterised by its translucency and the presence of platy mineral inclusions that give a shimmering or glistening effect termed aventurescence.

The most common colour of aventurine is green, but it may also be orange, brown, yellow, blue, or gray. Chrome-bearing fuchsite (a variety of muscovite mica) is the classic inclusion, and gives a silvery green or blue sheen. Oranges and browns are attributed to hematite or goethite. Because aventurine is a rock, its physical properties vary: its specific gravity may lie between 2.64-2.69 and its hardness is somewhat lower than single-crystal quartz at around 6.5.

Aventurine feldspar or sunstone can be confused with orange and red aventurine quartzite, although the former is generally of a higher transparency. Aventurine is often banded and an overabundance of fuchsite may render it opaque, in which case it may be mistaken for malachite at first glance.

The name aventurine derives from the Italian "a ventura" meaning "by chance". This is an allusion to the lucky discovery of aventurine glass or goldstone at some point in the 18th century. Although it was known first, goldstone is now a common imitation of aventurine and sunstone. Goldstone is distinguished visually from the latter two minerals by its coarse flecks of copper, dispersed within the glass in an unnaturally uniform manner. It is usually a golden brown, but may also be found in blue or green.

The majority of green and blue-green aventurine originates in India (particularly in the vicinity of Mysore and Chennai) where it is employed by prolific artisans. Creamy white, gray and orange material is found in Chile, Spain and Russia. Most material is carved into beads and figurines with only the finer examples fashioned into cabochons, later being set into jewellery.

Aventurine healing Properties

Green Aventurine carries a strong connection to Earth and the devic kingdom, providing a better understanding and appreciation of nature and its soothing vibrations upon the mind and body. It is an excellent stone for gridding houses or gardens against geopathic stress. 
Wearing Aventurine also absorbs electromagnetic smog and guards against environmental pollution. Taped to a cell phone, it protects against its emanations. 
Green Aventurine energetically stimulates the physical growth of premature infants, young children and teenagers. It increases overall vitality and enhances the intellectual development of children struggling with schoolwork and destructive hyperactivity. It assists adults with written work, typing and computer skills, and is beneficial to all in overcoming clumsiness.
Aventurine may be made into an elixir to drink or used in ablutions by soaking a stone fragment in demineralized water overnight (we recommend the indirect method). It is highly beneficial for fighting eczema, rosacea, juvenile acne, and other skin problems. 
Aventurine is ideal for soothing quick-tempers or brutal temperaments, and can greatly diminish the effects of domestic strife between spouses. 
For those looking for love in their mature years, Green Aventurine may be used as a love crystal or added to a Heart Chakra layout as it encourages love later in life.

Physical properties of Aventurine

Chemical FormulaSiO2
ColourBlue, Green, Yellow, Orange, Brown, Gray
Hardness6.5 - 7
Crystal SystemHexagonal
Refractive Index1.54 - 1.55
SG2.63 - 2.65
TransparencyOpaque. May be translucent when backlit on the edges.
Double Refraction.009
LusterVitreous, waxy
CleavageIndiscernible
Mineral ClassQuartz / Chalcedony

Aquamarine Gemstone

What is aquamarine?

Aquamarine is a member of the beryl family. This stone is known for its blue to blue-green colour. The name comes from the Latin for “sea water”, and aquamarine folklore is usually tied to sailors and the sea. Aquamarine is the birthstone for March and it’s a popular gem that wears well, is readily available, and moderately priced.
Aquamarine is a member of the beryl family and ranges in colour from an almost colourless pale blue to blue-green or teal. The most prize colour is a deep-blue aqua colour. It is 7.5-8 on the Mohs scale of hardness and gets its name from Latin words meaning water and sea.

Occurrence

The most valuable aquamarines come from Brazil, but it is also mined in Kenya and Nigeria, Madagascar, Zambia, Tanzania, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Russia. . Aquamarines on the market today are usually faceted, but when cut as a cabochon, they may display a cat's eye effect known as asterism.
Some gemstones are heated to high temperatures to enhance the colour and/or clarity of a stone. Aquamarines are often heat treated to change a blue-green or teal coloured stone to a pure blue. This results in a permanent colour change.

Aquamarine Healing Properties

Associated with the Throat chakra, Aquamarine helps overcome the fear of speaking, and is an excellent stone for teachers and presenters of all types. It relaxes speakers to a stage of consciousness in which they are fully aware of their own truths, wisdom and feelings, and able to articulate them with clarity and conviction. It also allows one to speak clearly and without anger in difficult situations. 
Aquamarine accelerates the intellectual reasoning processes and enhances the ability for rapid response. It makes one unconquerable through learning, not only about the physical world, but about oneself.  It bestows perseverance, discipline and light heartedness.
Aquamarine encourages the ideal of service to the world and to the development of a humanity attuned to healing. It emits a gentle and compassionate energy, promoting moderation and responsibility for ones' actions. It inspires judgemental people to be more tolerant, and helps those overwhelmed by responsibility to find order. 
A stone of natural justice, Aquamarine utilises compromise and negotiation, and gives quiet courage and clear reasoned words in confrontational situations. Pass Aquamarine over any written complaints you receive or before you send any out, wear or carry Aquamarine when visiting your child's school because of a complaint, or when resolving neighbourhood disputes over parking or boundaries. 
As a travel crystal, greenish blue Aquamarine protects those who journey by sea, alleviating the fear of water, and guards those involved in any long-haul travel such as flying or driving long distances. It is a good stone for learning to swim. 
As a love crystal, pale blue Aquamarine encourages a lover to return, helps two people with different lifestyles to live together in harmony, and reduces the effects of sensitive issues that cause quarrels. Aquamarine is often given as a love token or eternity ring, and increases commitment and fidelity "as long as the waters of the earth flow."

Physical Properties of Aquamarine

Chemical FormulaBe3Al2SiO6
ColourBlue
Hardness7.5 - 8.0
Crystal SystemHexagonal
Refractive Index1.57 - 1.58
SG2.6 - 2.8
TransparencyTransparent to translucent
Double Refraction.006
LusterVitreous
Cleavage3,1 - basal
Mineral ClassBeryl (Aquamarine)

Andradite Gemstone

What is Andradite?

Andradite is a species of the garnet group. It was named after the Brazilian mineralogist José Bonifácio de Andrade e Silva (1763–1838). Andradite includes three varieties:
  1. Melanite: Black in color, referred to as "titanian andradite".
  2. Demantoid: Vivid green in color, one of the most valuable and rare stones in the gemological world.
  3. Topazolite: Yellow-green in color and sometimes of high enough quality to be cut into a faceted gemstone, it is rarer than demantoid.
It was first described in 1868 for an occurrence in Drammen, Buskerud, Norway.

Occurrence

Melanite
It occurs in skarns developed in contact metamorphosed impure limestones or calcic igneous rocks; in chlorite schists and serpentinites and in alkalic igneous rocks (typically titaniferous). Associated minerals include vesuvianite, chlorite, epidote, spinel, calcite, dolomite and magnetite. It is found in Italy, the Ural Mountains of Russia, Arizona and California and in Dnipropetrovsk Oblast in Ukraine. Like the other garnets, andradite crystallizes in the cubic space group, with unit-cell parameter of 12.051 Å at 100 K. The spin structure of andradite contains two mutually canted equivalent antiferromagnetic sublattices below the Néel temperature.
Demantoid
Topazolite

Andradite Healing Properties

The energies and healing powers of Andradite Garnet reflect the strength and protection of all garnets. Its physical healing power encourages the stimulation and regeneration of blood, the assimilation of vital minerals, and strengthens the immune system.
Emotionally, Andradite Garnet brings strength, stability and balance, promoting self-confidence and self-esteem. It is associated with the Base, Heart and Solar Plexus Chakras, opening up the mind to higher thinking and better relationships, and stimulating creativity, will and focus.
It is a powerful spiritual cleanser. Andradite Garnet ranges in colour energy from green to dark olive, deep yellow, and a glossy black. Melanite, the black variety is an excellent meditation aid with powerful grounding abilities.
A host of angels are associated with Andradite's colour energies and it honors two Goddesses. Garnet is the traditional birthstone of January, and Andradite is the natural birthstones of those born in the in the heart of spring (April 20-May 20) and the beginning of summer (June 21-July 21).
Garnet is the zodiac stone for those born under the sign Aquarius, and is an Enhancer Strengthener crystal. It has the properties of Wood and Water energies, and is a talisman of protection.

Physical Properties of Andradite

Chemical FormulaCa3Fe3+2Si3O12
ColourRed, Green, Yellow, Orange, Brown, Pink, Gray, Black, Multicoloured
Hardness6.5 - 7.5
Crystal SystemIsometric
Refractive Index1.888 - 1.889
SG3.8 - 3.9
TransparencyTransparent to opaque
Double RefractionNone
LusterAdamantine, submetallic
CleavageNone
Mineral ClassAndradite (Garnet)

Andesine gemstone

What is Andesine?

Andesine is a silicate mineral, a member of the plagioclase feldspar solid solution series. Its chemical formula is (Ca, Na)(Al, Si)4O8, where Ca/(Ca + Na) (% Anorthite) is between 30%-50%. The plagioclase feldspars are a continuous solid solution series and as such the accurate identification of individual members requires detailed optical study, chemical analysis or density measurements. Refractive indices and specific gravity increase directly with calcium content.
Andesine feldspar is composed of 50-70% albite and 30-50% anorthite. 

Name and discovery

Andesine was first described in 1841 for an occurrence in the Marmato mine, Colombia. It is named after the Andes mountains of South America. The name is for the Andes due to its abundance in the andesite lavas in those mountains. 
Andesine is found in a range of colours, from red, honey-red to orange, yellow, champagne and green. In the early 2000s, red and green gemstones began to be marketed under the name of 'Andesine'. After some controversy, these gemstones were subsequently discovered to have been artificially-coloured.

Occurrence

Andesine occurs in intermediate igneous rocks such as diorite, syenite and andesite. It characteristically occurs in metamorphic rocks of granulite to amphibolite facies commonly exhibiting antiperthite texture. It also occurs as detrital grains in sedimentary rocks. It is commonly associated with quartz, potassium feldspar, biotite, hornblende and magnetite.

Andesine Healing Properties

As a protective stone, wearing andesine jewellery or simply carrying the stone around will prevent the release of necessary energies while also acting to deflect undesirable energy. Use when around particularly negative people or situations. Wearing a labradorite pendant is beneficial for sensitive people.
Like all metaphysical crystals andesine gemstone can impact the mind, thought-patterns, and psychological well-being. This stone acts to connect the intuition with the intellect. What effect does this synergy have? It facilitates creative thought, which is ideal for innovators, therapists, writers, and any work where the combination of concrete thoughts and deeper awareness is appreciated.

Physical Properties of Andesine

Chemical Formula(Na,Ca)Al1-2Si3-2O8
ColourRed, Green, Yellow, Orange, Pink, Multicoloured
Hardness6 - 6.5
Crystal SystemTriclinic
Refractive Index1.560 - 1.568
SG2.69 - 2.70
TransparencyTransparent to translucent
Double Refraction.008
LusterVitreous
Cleavage2,1 - basal ; 2,1 - prismatic ; 3,1 - pinacoidal.
Mineral ClassPlagioclase feldspar (Also see the minerals Andesine and Labradorite))

Earthquake Early Warning. How does it work?