Carbonate Petrography

Carbonate petrography is the study of limestones, dolomites and associated deposits under optical or electron microscopes greatly enhances field studies or core observations and can provide a frame of reference for geochemical studies.

25 strangest Geologic Formations on Earth

The strangest formations on Earth.

What causes Earthquake?

Of these various reasons, faulting related to plate movements is by far the most significant. In other words, most earthquakes are due to slip on faults.

The Geologic Column

As stated earlier, no one locality on Earth provides a complete record of our planet’s history, because stratigraphic columns can contain unconformities. But by correlating rocks from locality to locality at millions of places around the world, geologists have pieced together a composite stratigraphic column, called the geologic column, that represents the entirety of Earth history.

Folds and Foliations

Geometry of Folds Imagine a carpet lying flat on the floor. Push on one end of the carpet, and it will wrinkle or contort into a series of wavelike curves. Stresses developed during mountain building can similarly warp or bend bedding and foliation (or other planar features) in rock. The result a curve in the shape of a rock layer is called a fold.


Paleontology is the study of fossils. Fossils are any remains of the organism lived and preserved on this Earth by millions of years ago. Any organism from large to micro level are the part of paleontology. The history of earth is preserved in these fossils. Our generation haven't seen any dinosaurs but it is the fact lived million years ago. These fossils are the key to study earth from its beginning. There were many creatures lived on this earth which are extinct but their fossils preserved and discovered reveals the history. These remains are studied under paleontology
Types of paleontology includes vertebrates and invertebrates

Vertebrates paleontology

Vertebrates are organism that have backbone. Backbone presence shows that organism have skeletal remains. Skeleton is the hard part of an organism which are preserved through years and are now studied. As the soft parts of organism are decayed through time but hard skeleton preserved are discovered.


There are many organism which do not have backbone hence do not have skeleton in them but there are hard parts of an organism which are preserved. Shell remains which are made of mostly silicates and calcium are preserved. The remaining body can be assumed and studied.

This study helps in examining and interpreting creature habitat, body functions and food consumption.